Primary Sources:

"America the Hope of the Portuguese Cocoa Slave." Frank Leslie's Weekly. November 4, 1909. Accessible Archives.

Burtt, Joseph. "How America Can Free the Portuguese Slave." Frank Leslie's Weekly. October 14, 1909. Accessible Archives.

Burtt, Joseph."My Success in America." Frank Leslie's Weekly. December 16, 1909. Accessible Archives.

"Harkin-Engel Protocol." Chocolate Manufacturer's Association. 2001. Cocoa Initiative.

Lidner, Clarence Richard. "How America Can Free the Portuguese Slave." Frank Leslie's Weekly. October 7, 1909. Accessible Archives.

Roberto Romano. “The Dark Side of Chocolate Still Images.” UConn Library Archives and Special Collections. 2005. (accessed October 20, 2019).

Tony’s Chocolonely. “Tony’s Chocolonely Annual Report 2017/2018” Tony’s Chocolonely.  (accessed October 18, 2019).

YouTube. “The Dark Side of Chocolate.” DocumFeed. June 9, 2014. October 20, 2019).

Secondary Sources: 

Aaronson, Susan Ariel. 2007. “Globalization and Child Labor: The Cause Can Also Be a Cure.” YaleGlobal Online.

"Cocoa Farmers." Fairtrade Foundation.

Guzzi, Jaime. "Harkin-Engel Protocol on Chocolate and Child Slavery Set to Expire on July 1." Global Exchange. June 30, 2005.

Higgs, Catherine. Chocolate Islands. Ohio University Press. Published 2012.

Moss, Sarah. "A Brief History of Chocolate." Global Commodities, Marlborough: Adam Matthew, 2012. Web. Accessed October 22, 2019. <>.

Satre, Lowell J. Chocolate on Trial. Ohio University Press. Published 2005.

Whoriskey, Peter, and Rachel Siegel. “Hershey, Nestle and Mars Won't Promise Their Chocolate Is Free of Child Labor.” The Washington Post. WP Company, June 5, 2019.


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